The movement of people is the fourth dimension of globalization, alongside that of goods, financial flows and information. Nevertheless, in the globalized world, the mobility of people is subject to severe constraints and is a source of recurrent tensions between developed and developing countries. Merely the mobility of people is far from what Europe and the southern Mediterranean countries would need to take advantage of proximity and complementarity, as do other regions of the world. With dual nationalities, the diaspora includes migrants or descendants of migrants who share one or more important characteristic, like a country of origin, ethnicity, religions of origin, language, politics.
Moroccans residing abroad represent more than 10% of the total population of the nation’s kingdom, amounting to more than 3 million people. Algerians living abroad number 7 million while Tunisians represent a figure closer to 1.2 million. More than 80% of the Maghrebi diaspora reside in France. The main objective of the symposium organized by Ipemed on May 15, 2014 in the French senate was to raise awareness that this diaspora, with its diverse and varied skills—such as business leaders, academics, researchers, doctors, etc. This goal and angle of approach remain insufficiently considered in the development of host countries or countries of origin, unlike other regions of the world. The rise of Bangalore, the Indian Silicon Valley, was made possible thanks to the emigration of young Indian engineers to California’s Silicon Valley and their return to the country.
These exchanges can not be confined to material flows; it is above all a question of allowing increased mobility of people to support vocational training and research.
This basin is one of the most sensitive areas in the world where multiple countries and their fates define the phenomenon of migration. Since the 1990s, there has been a presence of a two-tier migratory model.
The analysis of macroeconomic data reveals that developed and emerging countries are the main beneficiaries of the knowledge market. Migratory globalization is characterized by the complexity of new flows (elites, gender, minors, refugees) increasingly graduating but subject to less and less transparent rules of functioning. All these cross-border mobilities highlight the renewal of migration, feminization, and rejuvenation, which mainly concern highly skilled work. These are chosen according to the niches of specializations induced by new information and communication technologies, which require new skills. They are often recruited through international competitive bidding. To be even more performing, multinational firms. The Mediterranean is a new frontier between the developed world and the developing world. Performance as a new challenge to competitiveness encompasses new social, economic and cultural dimensions that go beyond the mere framework of labor mobility. This deterioration of men is also a family uprooting and a projection into the unknown.
The guidelines for these new mobilities must be part of an ethical cooperation and, in particular, for highly skilled workers, seasonal workers, persons transferred within their companies and paid trainees. But in all cases, admissions remain subject to the holding of a contract of employment and to an examination by the member state of its economic needs.
All this free circulation is controlled by the invisible hand of the states and the multinational firms which organize thus a legalized looting of the knowledge and the know-how of the South. In 25 years, Africa will have emptied its brains, a gloomy prospect for Africa especially for its social, scientific and technological development. The paradox is that while departures have reached 20,000 per year since 1990, Africa uses foreign experts of up to 150,000 annually, spending an annual expense of $4 billion. This perpetual flight of skilled labor increases the gap between Africa and the continents in science and technology. European attractiveness contributes to the poaching of elites.